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Printing - Print ing Method Identifica tion and Compari son. Photocopier - Comparison of P hotocopy Identifying Marks. What w ill be covered are sket ches of analytic al methods for. These met hods take eithe r the. Details of the methods are. The Two Approaches to Dating. The Stati c A pproach - The methods inv olving the static. It is important to know the gene ral composition of t he.

Some of thes e methods.

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One new novel method sketched. Another novel "element al" method mention e d. Comments on the Use of Collection of Standards - When a. One can readily see that there i s a strong relation ship. More on this lat er. For a r efer ence col lection to be of forensic value, the. When a questioned ink matches a standard having only. Comments on the Reliabili ty of Sampl es - A standar d.

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In the case of inks, like most cases,. Comments on Stabilit y of S amples - A given method for. To be stable with age,. There is no control o f age-inducing. If the profile of a questioned sample does change. This impacts on the treatment of aging. The Dynamic Approach - The metho d s involving the.

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Their goal is to distinguish inks that only. That is, these met hods attempt to determine. In those cases where a qu e stione d ink is being. This indicates that, in most cases , thi s. Comment on Paper Aging - Although much has been. I n paper conservation,. Some of the "kinetic". Statisti cal Treatment of Data - To det ermin e if t wo samples.

The resulting d ata i s. Th e anal ysis applies t o all methods. The analysi s also applies to those methods. For these, Kowalski's [2]. These methods invo lve determini ng profiles " finger prints" of items. A profile of an item is a set of characterizing features such.

Research Paper Online Dating

But to test thi s. The meaning of match between a qu estioned sam ple. Purpose of Refere nce Standards and Their. Methods of Discrim ination. Purpose - A s may be inferred from above, a data base or. In pract ice, however, the. No data base is. To Dete r mine D ate - If a questioned sample matches a.

Though date determination is the main focus of this paper,. Comment on Limited Data Bases - Limited data bases exist. These, like any limited data base, provide.

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Determination of Chemic al Compositional Prof iles. Writing Inks - Since writing inks are numerous and change. Following is a historical ske tch of some coll ections. Discr imi nation - In the s Werner Hofmann from the. Zurich Cantonal Police , Zurich, Switzerland, began the first. He obtaine d his collect ion of inks from pens acquire d from. He documented purchasing dat es of. Fr om the ink he made standard entries series of parallel. Optical properties [ul t ravi olet UV. Finally, he separated the ir dye composition t hrough. The total pro file. T LC offe red the gr eater discri mination.

The date a nd. That is, when a mat ch was made, evidence existed to. Laboratory [which lat er b ecame part of t he Bureau of.

His app roa ch, howe v er, ce ntred on. His ap proach als o focus ed on. Also, to make the col lection more complet e and to test t he. Some of these go back to t he. Samples of the Hofmann collection were also. The enti re collecti on, or li brary of standard inks,.

Stamp pad i nks were also include d. It was discovered fro m this that most writing inks. Hofm ann 's app roach, collected off-the-shelf pen samples.


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If it i s necess ary to date. Collected samples from the FBI and the U. Postal Service were also added. Advanced Method of D iscrimination - Also in t he. These more advanced methods are used to dist inguish i nks. Stability Studies - Also during the mid-1 s it was.

This support ed the. Also obse rved was that when a. Careful fading studies hav e. Furthermore, as stat ed above, to increa se the positive. To addres s thes e two needs, this author, while at. AFT, developed in the mids a year ly ink tagging.